June 11, 2011

MORPHOLOGY

Posted by Retya Elsivia at 10:31 PM

Morphology is study of the arrangement of words, how to compose word.
Morphology is study of the word’s formation.
Linguistic levels :
Semantic Level                                                           deals with meaning
Syntactic Level                                                           deals with sentence structure
Morphological Level                                                   deals with word structure
Phonology (or Phonemics)                                          deals with sound systems

MORPHEME
A morpheme is a short segment of language that meets three criteria (Norman.C Stageberg and Dalin D. Oaks) :
  1. It is a word or a part of a word that has meaning
  2. It cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts without violation of its meaning or without meaningless remainders.
  3. It recurs in differing verbal environment with a relatively stable meaning.
 A morpheme is the smallest differences in the shape of a word that correlates with smallest difference in word or sentence meaning or in grammatical structure (Katamba).

Let us examine the word straight / stret / in the light of these criteria. First, we recognize it as a word and can find it listed as such in any dictionary. Second, it cannot be divided without violation of meaning. For example, we can, by dividing straight / stret/ get the smaller meaningful form of trait / tret /,  rate / ret / , and ate / et /, but the meanings of   these violate the meaning of straight. Furthermore, when we divide it in these ways we get the meaningless remainders of /s-/, /st-/, and str-/. Third, straight recurs with a relatively stable meaning in such environments as straightedge, straighten, and straight line. Thus straight meets all of the criteria of a morpheme.

As a second example let us compare the morpheme type (= type a letter) with the word typist (=person who type a letter). In sound the only difference between the two words in the added /-ist/ of typist, and in the meaning the differences the added sense of “ person/ who” in typist. This leads us to conclude that ‘ist’ means person/ who. Thus we see that ist a part of a word that has meaning. We also know that it cannot be divided into smaller meaningful units and that it recurs with a stable meaning in words such as journalist, pianist, dentist, and vocalist. It is therefore obvious that ist must be considered a morpheme, so typist contains two morphemes type and ist

The word that consist of more than one morpheme is called Polymorphemic words. Polymorphemic words need not contain only one root morpheme though they must contain at least once.

 Lexemes and Word Forms
Lexeme is an abstract from underliying the formation of a word.
The distinction between these two senses of “word” is arguably the most important one in morphology. The first sense of “word” , the one in which dog and dogs are :the same word”, is called a lexeme. The second sense is called word form. We thus say that dog and dogs are different form of the asme lexeme. Dog and dog catcher, on the other hand, are different lexemes, as they refer to two different kinds of entities. The form of a word that is chosen conventionally to represent the canonical form of a word is called a lemma or citation form.    

Lexemes are vocabulary items that are listed in the dictionary ( cf. Di Sciullo and Williams, 1987 ).
 The form pockling, pockle, pockles,and pockled are different realization (or representation/manifestation) of the lexeme POCKLE. They all share a core meaning although they are spelled and pronounced differently.

The physical word-forms                 are realizations of                              the lexeme
See, sees, seeing, saw, seen                                                                             SEE
Sleeps, sleeping, slept                                                                                     SLEEP
Catch, catches, catching, caught                                                                     CATCH

Jump, jumps, jumped, jumping                                                                       JUMP
Tall, taller, tallest                                                                                             TALL
Boy ,boys                                                                                                        BOY
Woman, women                                                                                              WOMAN

The Grammatical Word
The Grammatical Word is word that not represent the change of grammatical form. The “Word” can also be seen as a representation of a lexeme that is associated with certain morphosyntatic properties (i.e party morphological and parthy syntactic properties) such as noun, adjective, verb, tense, gender, number, etc. We sall use the term grammatical word to refer to the “word” in this sense.
Example : Put, Hit and Cut
I cut grass everyday
I cut grass last week
Morphemes may be classified in more than one dimension. Firstly, morphemes are bound and free
Free and Bound Morphemes
Morphemes are two kinds, free and bound. Free morphemes is one that can be uttered alone with meaning, such as the words straight and type that we saw earlier. A bound morphemes, unlike the free, cannot be uttered alone with meaning. It is always annexed to one or more morphemes to form a word.
All of free morpheme is word and same as  MORPHEME

Example : The italicized morphemes are all bound.
Antedate
Keeper
Replay
Unable
Impossible

BASES
 A bases morpheme is the part of a word that has the principal meaning. The italicized morphemes in these words are bases : denial, lovable, annoyance, re-enter. Bases are very numerous and most of them in English are free morphemes, but some are bound. Such as –sent, in consent, dissent, and assent. A word may contain one best and one or more affixes. Readability, for example contains the free base read, and two suffixes –abil and –ity and unmistakeable has the free base take and the prefixes un- and mis-, as well as the suffix –able.

Secondly, morphemes may be divided into roots and affixes.
Roots and Affixes
The root being that part of a word structure which is left when all the affixes have been removed. Affix is a useful general term for the recurrent formative morphemes of words other than roots, but affixes may be divided formally into three major positional classes according to the position they occupy in relation to the root morpheme : prefix, infix, and suffix. Root morphemes may be bound and free, and are potentially unlimited in number in a language, as additions to vocabulary are in the main made by the acquisition of new roots either taken from foreign languages or created for the purposes. Affixes are bound morphemes, they are limited in number, though their numbers vary from language to language and they may be exhaustively listed.

 

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