November 04, 2013

Linguistics

Posted by Retya Elsivia at 7:53 AM
Language is the primary thing in human life. Human and language can not separate because language use as communication tool than can help human to interact each other. According to Chomsky, language is one characteristic that is unique to humans among all other living beings. Philosophy of language are the collection of results of philosophers’ minds about basic concepts of language that systematically arranged to be studied by using a particular method and also methods of thinking deeply, logical, and universal about the nature of language. Philosophy of language can be seen from two points of view. First, the philosophy of language is seen as a science and second, the philosophy of language is seen as a method. If viewed as a science, philosophy of language refers to the collection of the results of the minds of philosophers of language systematically arranged to be studied by using a particular method. If viewed as a method of thinking, philosophy of language refers to the method of thinking in depth, logical, and universal about the nature of language (Hidayat, 2009: 13). Philosophy of language is the combination of linguistic and philosophy.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language. This could solve the complicatedness of language such as form, function, meaning, value and ideology. According to Robin, there are four point of view of linguistics:
·         Descriptive Linguistics
Descriptive linguistics considered with the description and analysis of the ways in which a language operates and used by a given a set of speakers at a given time.
·         Historical Linguistics
Historical linguistics is the study of the developments in language in the course of time of the ways in which language change from period to period, and the course and result of such changes, both outside the language and within them.



·         Comparative Linguistics
Comparative linguistics is concerned with comparing from one or more point of view two or more different languages and more generally with the theory and techniques applicable to such comparisons.
·         Prescriptive Linguistics
Prescriptive linguistics is a grammar which states rules for what is considered the best or most correct usage.
There are three subdivision of linguistics which are microlinguistics, macrolinguitics, and applied linguistics. Microlinguistics deals with the internal structure of language like the structure of phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon. Meanwhile Macrolinguistics deals with the relation of the language with all the aspects beyond of the language itself. For example: social factors, psychology, anthropology, and neurology. Applied linguistics is the application of the concepts and findings of linguistics to a variety of practical tasks, including language-teaching.
There are some linguistics objects that include in microlingutics such as:
1.       Phonology. Phonology is the study of the sound systems of languages, and of the general or universal properties displayed by these systems. In phonology, there are concept like phonetics which is the study of the physical and physiological aspects of human sound production and perception; generally divided into articulatory, acoustic, and auditory branches.
2.      Morphology. Morphology is the branch of grammar that studies how words are formed from morphemes. In morphology, there are concepts like free and bound morpheme. Free morpheme is a morpheme which can stand alone to make a word by itself. Contrasts with bound morpheme which is a morpheme which cannot stand alone to make a word, but must be combined with something else within a word.
3.      Syntax. Syntax is the study of the rules governing the way words and morphemes are combined to form phrases and sentences. In syntax, there is concept like adjunct which is an optional element of a grammatical construction, whose removal does not affect the structural identity of the construction.
4.      Semantics. Semantics is the study of meaning in language; in generative grammar: how the meanings of words combine to form complex meanings of phrases and sentences. In semantics, there are concept like synonymy, hyponymy and opposites. Synonymy is the relationship between two expressions that have the same sense. Hyponymy is the relationship between expressions such that the meaning of one expression is included in the meaning of the other. Opposites is the relationship of being "opposite in meaning".
Contrast with microlingutics, macrolingutics also have object such as:
1.      Pragmatics. Pragmatics is the study of the use of language in context. In pragmatics, there is ethnography of communication concept proposed by Dell Hymes (1974) often used for describing context consist of setting (scene), participants, ends, act sequence, key, instruments, norms, genre.
2.      Sociolinguistics. Sociolinguistics is the study of the relationship between language and society. In sociolinguistics study, there are concept like dialect and variety. Dialect is a variety of a language used recognizably in a specific region or social by a specific social class. Variety is a term used to denote any identifiable kind of language.
3.      Psycholinguistics. Psycholinguistics is a branch of study which combines the disciplines of psychology and linguistics. It has been heavily influenced by the work of Noam Chomsky, and it mostly concerns with the encoding and decoding of meaning in speech. The concept is like language acquisition which is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.
In applied linguistics, there are object like translation and language-teaching in order of practical tasks. Translation is the process of transferring text from one language into another. In translation, the concept is like borrowing which is a translation procedure whereby the translator uses a word or expression from the source text in the target text unmodified.
References:

Hidayat, Asep Ahmad. 2009. Filsafat Bahasa, Mengungkap Hakikat Bahasa, Makna dan Tanda. Cetekan kedua. Bandung : Remaja Rosdakarya.
Hymes, Dell. 1974. Foundations of Sociolinguistics: An Ethnographic Approach. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P.
Introduction to General Linguistics, Winter term 2011/12.
Robins, RH. 1990. General Linguistics: An Introduction Survey. London: Longman.

 

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